THE TUNDRA
By Amanda Votano
Tonya Campell
and Ashley Carter




tundra-plants.GIF


In the Tundra you can find 360-600 different species of plants. Plants like lichens, perennial forbs, heaths, cotton grass,sedges, mosses, grasses, dwarf trees, and shrubs are found here. Such plants provide food for the herbavores that live in this cold biome. Herbavores of the Arctic Tundra include lemmings and arctic hares. Snowy owls, ptarmigans, geese, ducks, arctic foxes, musk oxen, caribou, and polar bears are other animals that have addapted to the cold temperatures of the Arctic Tundra. In the Alpine Tundra you can find chipmunks, ground squirrels, badgers, red foxes, mules, deer, bighorn sheep, mountain goats, and grizzly bears.

video on caribou and polar bears^


external image tundra@night.gif.jpg
Tundra at night^

external image rainfall.gif
Graph of average rainfall per year^


The Tundra is one of the biomes which is only found under very cold weather conditions. You will be surprised to find though, that neither the south or north poles have tundra biomes. In the tundra, the weather conditions are extremely cold even in the average temperatures but this biome is still able to support life. The temperature in the summer on the ground of the tundra can rise to over eighty degrees, but the soil still remains frozen underneath which is known as permafrost. Also, the average annual temperature in the tundra is beow twenty-five degrees. Water avaliablity may not seem like a problem but the cold conditions of the tundra make it difficult to obtain the water and it may recieve no more precipitation than a desert. The annual amount of precipitation is estimated around fifty inches as well. In the tundra there is also about four months of complete darkness because the sun does not rise. During those four months, polar bears hibernate in the snow until the spring. During the summer, there is twenty-four hours of complete sunlight as well. Also, without warning at all, blizzards can strike at any time in the tundra.
external image arctic_fox_ar06sm.jpg
White fox 1^
external image 16061123.jpg
White fox 2^

One of the many animals living in the tundra is the arctic white fox. The fox preys on animals such as hares, lemmings, and sea-birds, during the summer.
This animal catches most of its food in between rock crevices in the mountains to help itself through the harsh winters. During April and May, the Arctic white fox also hunts for ringed seal when they are in a snow den and helpless. They also eat fish beneath the ice of the tundra floor. When their normal prey is scarce, they will eat the remains of larger animals such as polar bears even though the bears' prey is infact the fox itself. This animal is also able to live in the most harsh and extreme temperatures and weather. The size of the male arctic white fox is the head and body being 55 cm and the tail being 31 cm. The size of the female arctic white fox is the head and body being 53 cm and the tail being 30 cm. They are also 25-30 cm high at their shoulder as well.

Food Chain:
Arctic white fox --> lemmings --> plants (sedges, leaves, grasses, shoots)

FOOD WEB:
external image fig1.jpg

food web of animals in the tundra GRAPH B^





external image ccrpale3_4.gif
Graph of where the tundra is in the world^


WORKS CITED:
Moore, Peter D. Tundra. New York, New York: Chelsea House, 2006.
Lisowski, Marylin. Environmental Science. Boston, Massachusetts: Pearson Education Inc., 2007. (science book).
Books, Time-Life. Grasslands and Tundra (Planet Earth). Bonn, Germany: Time Life Education, 1985.
Prentice Hall Science Explorer: Environmental Science. Toronto: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2007.
http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/images/tundra_location_map001.gif
http://www.hclc.sailorsite.net/TeachersOnline/RobertBlack/ChapterEvaluations/Geo/Ch2Graph.JPG
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arctic_fox
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lemmings
Planet Earth Video
http://www.ri.net/schools/West_Warwick/manateeproject/Tundra/images/tundra@night.gif.jpg - tundra at night
http://images.exoticindiaart.com/wildlife/arctic_fox_ar06sm.jpg - white fox1
http://www.raydoan.com/images/16061123.jpg - white fox2
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7Brrbf6NpYc - video on caribou and polar bears
http://www.mbgnet.net/sets/tundra/rainfall.gif - graph of average rainfall per year
http://www.cgd.ucar.edu/asr/asr97/ccrpale3_4.gif - graph of where the tundra is in the world
http://www.ehponline.org/members/2003/6383/fig1.jpg - food web of animals in the tundra GRAPH B